XYO Protocol

The XYO Protocol was defined in late 2017 by Arie Trouw with the help from Scott Scheper and Markus Levin, and published in January 2018.

The XYO Network is composed of 4 different components

The XYO Network has four primary components, Sentinels, Bridges, Archivists, and Diviners. These four components enable geo-focused, consensus-building and trustless verification of location data. This means that when you write a smart contract that specifies for an object to appear at a specific XY-coordinate, if it appears there, you will know that it was at that location with absolute certainty. This is all done without risk of spoofing the location signaling device(s) verified by thousands of Sentinels in the XYO Oracle Network with the longest Proof of Origin chain (thus yielding greater confidence in the heuristics).

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Sentinels: Data Witnesses

Sentinel components are heuristic witnesses. They observe heuristics and vouch for the certainty and accuracy of the heuristic by producing temporal ledgers. The most important aspect of a Sentinel is that it produces ledgers that Diviners can be certain came from the same source by adding Proof of Origin to them.

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Bridges: Data transfers

Bridges are heuristic transcribers. They securely relay heuristic ledgers from Sentinels to Diviners. The most important aspect of a Bridge is that a Diviner can be sure that the heuristic ledgers that are received from a Bridge has not been altered in any way. The second most important aspect of a Bridge is that they add an additional Proof of Origin.

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Archivists: Data Storage

Archivist components store heuristics in a decentralized form with the goal of having all historical ledgers stored, but without that requirement. Even if some data is lost or becomes temporarily unavailable, the system continues to function, but just with reduced accuracy. Archivists also index ledgers so that they can return a string of ledger data if needed. Archivists store raw data only and get paid only for retrieval of the data. Storage is always free.

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Diviners: Dataist Decisions

A Diviner answers a given question by analyzing historical data that has been stored by the XYO Network. To accomplish this, heuristics stored in the XYO Network must have a high level of Proof of Origin to measure the validity and accuracy of the heuristic by judging the witness based on its Proof of Origin. Given that the XYO Network is a trustless system, Diviners must be incentivized to provide honest analysis of heuristics. Unlike Sentinels and Bridges, Diviners use Proof of Work to add answers to the blockchain.

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Proof of Origin

In a trustless system, data may be lost, damaged, tampered with, or otherwise corrupted. Traditional Proof of Origin in a trustless system relies on a private key for signing transactions or contracts in a system. This works very well with the assumption that the node on the network that signs the data in question is physically and virtually secure. If the private key is compromised, then the ability to prove origin falters. Proof of Origin (Proof of Origin) is the key to verifying that ledgers flowing into the XYO Network are valid. A unique ID for source of data is not practical since it can be spoofed. private key signing is not practical since most parts of the XYO Network are difficult or impossible to physically secure, so the ability for a bad actor to steal a private key is too feasible. To solve this, XYO Network uses Transient Key Chaining. The benefit of this is that it is impossible to falsify the chain of origin for data.

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Bound Witness

In a trustless system, a witness node can either (through defect or corruption) produce false data. Invalid data can be detected and removed simply if it falls outside the allowed range for that heuristic. Valid but incorrect data (i.e. false data) is much more difficult to detect. Given that an untrusted source of data used to resolve a digital contract (an oracle) is not useful, we can substantially increase the certainty of the data provided by first establishing the existence of a bidirectional proof of location. The primary bidirectional location heuristic is proximity, since both parties can validate the occurrence and range of an interaction by cosigning the interaction. This allows for a zero-knowledge proof that the two nodes were in proximity of each other. This novel concept is called 'Bound Witness,' and the XYO Network introduces this possibility, for the first time ever, to the world. The implications of this will change a multitude of industries and the way we trade in the world.

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